A Historical Perspective on the PettaquamScutt Rock and Narrow River

Rhode Island is full of several natural endowments. Since the time of the native Indians, residents have enjoyed a highly aesthetic and beautiful scenery brought by natural artifacts like the Pettaquamscutt Rock and the Narrow River. These two have their histories, which make them areas of significance to the region. However, millennials and even some of the older population are oblivious to these histories.

As part of our commitment towards promoting the culture and history of the Pettaquamscutt region, this article will be examining the accounts of these two regional symbols.

The Pettaquamscutt Rock


The Pettaquamscutt Rock is a historical symbol in the South Kingston, Rhode Island area of the United States. It represents an era of change in the city. Also known as Treaty rock, it was the scene of treaties between white settlers and local Indians in the 17th century. It was the location where Roger Williams bargained with the Narragansett sachems to allow peaceful co-existence between the white population and the native Indians.

Pettaquamscutt rock is a cliff behind a park, covered with highly sharp quartz nubbins. It’s a source of tourist attraction, where rock climbers have a good time. The Rock is estimated to be about 50 feet high and 40 feet wide, and climbers can get on it from anywhere. It affords an excellent view as it overlooks the Narrow River, another city treasure.

Historical Overview of the Rock

It’s not unusual to see rocks, even large ones in Rhode Island. One might also wonder why the Treaty rock is unique and accorded much importance since it’s not the only big Rock in the area. However, certain factors make the Pettaquamscutt Rock unique. One of them has to do with it serving as a gathering point for the original owners. It’s a point where significant decisions regarding the region materialized.

When English dwellers first came into the country, the land surrounding the Rock, west of the Narragansett Bay, was an open space. The forests were not much and free from bushes and weeds as the local Indians took care of the area by periodically burning over the region. During this time, the Treaty Rock was visible to a great length and easily accessible from the Narrow River. It was a natural meeting place and point of convergence for the Indians.

In March 1638, the English settlers led by Roger Williams bought and obtained confirmation of title to some of the lands from great Indian leaders. On the same day, he bargained with them the agreement through which other notable English settlers like William Coddington, William Dyre, and a host of others acquired the Island of Aquidneck for some significant amount. These purchases made the peaceful settlement of Portsmouth and Newport possible.

Twenty years later, in 1658, the men regarded as the buyers of Pettasquamscutt met at the Rock to strike a deal with the sachems for land traits, which gave English settlers the title to what we now refer to as South Kingston and some parts of Exeter and North Kingston.

The Narrow River

Also known as the Pettaquamscutt River, this water body serves as a naturally-positioned boundary between the Narragansett, South Kingston, and North Kingston towns. It’s estimated to be seven-mile long, connected to some basins fed by a small stream. Although a small section of Rhode Island, the river is a habitat that promotes the rich biodiversity of plant and animal life. Since its establishment in 1970, the NRPA has taken it upon herself to protect it.

The mouth of the river of ideal for swimming and riding boats, but poses a challenge to bigger water vehicles when the tide is low. As you travel along the river, you can see the Pettaquamscutt Rock sitting beautifully on the left. Up north of that is the Cajoot Graphite Mine site.

The Narrow River is known for its hard water content; a state attributed to several activities that had taken place in the area in history. Making the water usable usually requires the introduction of water softening agents like aquisana filters and softeners.

The river also has a reputation for the high volume of salt in its surrounding areas, which has severely affected its usage over the years. Residents around the neighborhood use water softeners that are salt-free to get water drawn from the river in usable condition.

Like the Rock, the Narrow River is a good source of tourist attraction and recreational activities owing to its many histories and controversies.


Rhode Island’s history wouldn’t be complete and accurate without talking about the Pettaquamscutt Rock and the Narrow River. They’re part of the several elements that make up the identity of the state. The Pettaquamscutt Historical Society Museum and Library dedicates herself to bringing more history and contents your way.

5 Interesting Facts About American History

How much do you know about American history?

Most Americans believe they know enough about the history of their country. However, they’ll probably tell you that the country has been around since 1776 and 1789 when it was formally founded.

Others will narrate to you that Teddy Roosevelt was known to be a proud “Trust Buster” or that Abe Lincoln was America’s 16th president.


There’s more to the history of America than what you can find in history textbooks; so much isn’t included in the textbook purviews.

The average American probably isn’t aware of the fascinating facts loaded in the country’s history. Some include:

  • With 1 in every 10 American presidents assassinated, the president’s office is the country’s deadliest job.
  • A 17-year old schoolboy designed the grand old American flag with 50 stars in 1958.
  • The amount of pizza sold in America daily could cover about 100 acres of land.
  • Grover Cleveland was America’s only executioner president; he hanged a murderer in New York as the sheriff.
  • Abraham Lincoln was an entrepreneurial president with a saloon and patent for a device used to lift boats.
  • The U.S. Air Force is the largest military force worldwide, followed by the U.S Navy and Marine Corps.
  • The oldest rivers dating back to millions of years are in the American soil: the Susquehanna, the New, and the French Broad Rivers.
  • One in every 10 Americans is likely related by blood to one of the 102 pilgrims of the 1620 Mayflower.

Here’re more interesting facts you’ll love to know about American history:

5 Fascinating Facts about the History of America that You May Not Know

  1. Celebrations and fireworks

Fireworks are typical of many celebrations in America, especially the 4th of July.

This culture is rooted in a fascinating history of the country. A “Congreve Rocket,” a British weapon and important firework, enabled the British to conquer Washington during “The Burning of Washington” war in 1812.

The rocket was inaccurate and susceptible to failure, hence only caused 26 deaths in the war. However, it turned out to be a terrible weapon for American soldiers who were untrained.

During the Battle of Bladensburg, the British took a sack and burnt Washington to victory, putting the city in the hands of foreign forces.

  • Turkish lies and explores American soil with Coronado

Francisco Vasquez de Coronado was the first explorer of the American Southwest on an expedition to find the “Seven Cities of Gold.”

A Native American guide is known as “the Turk” accompanied Coronado’s team. The Spanish explorers exploited the native tribes, killing and stealing from them as they deemed fit.

As a result, The Turk led the team of explorers astray so they could get lost in the wilderness. He led them into the great plains far from his people, knowing well he would never return if his plan worked well.

However, the Spanish discovered his plan and assassinated him prior to going back to New Mexico. The Native American hero, The Turk, saved his people from the aggressive Spanish explorers.

  • Evolution of hunting rifles contributed to America’s survival and economic prosperity

The history of firearms in the U.S dates back to as early as 1607 when English men arrived at Jamestown, Va. The early settlers used rifles to protect their colonies and hunt for big game meat.

Today, the rifles have evolved to feature the best ar 15 scope for top performance.

  • Popov and Pearl Harbor

Dushan Popov is the man believed to have inspired James Bond of Ian Fleming. He lived a high life in the 1940s.

Believed to be a German spy, Popov collected information for the Axis Powers from the Americans. However, he was also working as an agent for Britain.

The Japanese planned an attack on a naval base while he worked as a British agent. He decided to provide the FBI with information about the planned attack.

Upon arriving in America, he was made to set an appointment and wait before seeing J. Edgar Hoover, the director of the FBI. He rented a penthouse while waiting for his appointment and partied with the famous and rich of the time.

However, Hoover was furious at his risky behavior and threatened to send him to jail for violating the Mann Act. Popov failed to tell Hoover the information he came to deliver due to his anger.

  • Lincoln’s assassination and a promise to his wife

Lots of myths and theories surround the death of Abraham Lincoln. However, killing him wasn’t part of the initial plan.

Instead, he was to be kidnapped and taken hostage. Lincoln dreamt of his assassination after John Wilkes and his team changed their plan.

The dream bothered Lincoln so much that he shared it with William H. Crook, his bodyguard. Crook advised him not to visit the theater on the night of his killing.


Lincoln had promised his wife to go to the theater. He kept his promise despite the possibility of never returning home.

Weapons that made History: The Gun and Ammo Society Museum

Lovers of military history attest to the fact that since time immemorial there is growth in the Gun and Ammo Society Museum. The main responsibility of the museum is to preserve culture and history, some firearms are outdated and you cannot find them even in the military camps. Just for the sake of knowledge and history, the museum provides a practical outlook of what the ancient people used during World War II. It is from these weapons that you get to know about building the new ones.

This is possible since they…

check on the limitation of the older ones to address it on the new guns. Technology is something that also takes shape when it comes to diminishing history. Some of the gun artifacts that can be found in a museum include for example is the target handgun which was designed for soldiers in the World War I for the specific group since it was heavy and it had to be mounted on a surface then you point at the target bearing in mind the trajectory principle. When buying the first handgun in this era, you had to be a soldier who is muscular and sharp when it came to hitting the target.

Some of the most common global gun museums include

· Dragonman’s Military Museum in Colorado Springs

· NRA National Sporting Arms Museum in Spring field

· John M. Browning Firearms Museum in Utah

· Cody Firearms Museum in Wyoming

· J.M Davis Arms Museum in Oklahoma

Some of the museums are privately-owned…

but whether that is the case or it is publicly-owned there is a lot to learn when it comes to the military history of the area of representation. You have a collection of both the small and the big machines and you have a brief history of how they were used including advantages and disadvantages.

Although people are not allowed to purchase any of the guns, they are there to make the generation have an idea of their origin in terms of defense.

They are neatly displayed on the wall with a brief right up which include dates – very important in a museum. In most cases, there is a guide who provides more information about the history and usage of the gun for general knowledge.

It is never about the guns…

the history also includes the way of life of the militants, The type of cloth, the culture they used to practice at that time. Remember this was also the era of the slave trade. In the museum, you cannot miss the crude weapons that they used to capture the slaves to captivity. In any state that was actively involved in World War, there has to be a museum that explains the military history of the people around the area. You have a lot to feed your eyes which include the gun collection as well as the historical background and figures.

Tig Welders History

With the majority of the details associated with the way toward welding, one is left to think about to what extent has welding been continuing for; appears to be quite a while. All things considered, the appropriate response is basic. Welding goes back to the Iron Age and the Bronze Age. A few investigations demonstrate that welding was well known in Ancient Greece and the beginning of the Middle East.

Tungsten Inert Gas Welding (TIG)

TIG welding was first presented in the mid-1940s and turned into a moment achievement as a result of its high productivity. The principal metals are joined by utilizing TIG welding procedure were magnesium and aluminum.

This welding procedure was viewed as a positive swap for metal and gas circular segment welding. TIG welding has expanded the principles of welding aluminum.

Pretty much every mechanical division uses Tungsten latent gas welding in some structure or the other. More slender materials extraordinarily advantage from TIG as the affidavit of vitality is very controlled.

A noteworthy favorable position that settles on TIG welding a predominant decision for the vast majority is the way that it enables you to combine naturally and semi-consequently. You likewise have the choice of quit beginning and delicate halting the warmth amid the TIG procedure.

There are a couple of courses through which you can control the warmth amid Tungsten latent gas welding. You can utilize a remote control or a quickening agent pedal. You don’t need to quit welding in the event that you intend to rearrange the warmth. You can without much of a stretch re-change it amid the welding procedure.

A TIG unit is essentially unique in relation to other welding units so you should ensure that you gain proficiency with the majority of its capacities altogether before utilizing it

TIG welders are totally not the same as the different kinds of welders present in the market. Be that as it may, these distinctions are what make the TIG welders special and fundamentally superior to the others. We have referenced a portion of these distinctions down underneath. See also https://bestweldinghelmet.review/plasma-cutter/


Concerning exactness and accuracy, TIG welder is the top welder out there. The alternative of controlling the warmth is the thing that adds additional accuracy to this welder. Top-level exactness guarantees that there aren’t any mix-ups amid the welding procedure.

Welding is a fragile procedure, and the smallest of blunders are very hard to correct, in this way utilizing an exact and adaptable instrument like a TIG welder could do ponders for you.

Remarkable Quality

Utilizing TIG welders for all intents and purposes ensures extraordinary quality. You will almost certainly unite two metals without any difficulty rapidly, and you won’t need to stress over them breaking at any point in the near future. TIG welding guarantees that the metals joined utilizing it don’t lose any of their attributes and stay flawless with ideal quality.

Not exclusively will the condition be great, however there additionally won’t be any splatter after you complete welding. It guarantees that everything is perfect and clean. On the off chance that you are entrusted to make corrective welds, at that point you won’t discover a choice superior to TIG welding.

No Spatter Or Sparks

TIG welding is generally sheltered as there are no flashes or scatter created amid the welding procedure. You should ensure that you just include the required measure of metal to maintain a strategic distance from sparkles.

No Fumes or Smoke

TIG welding is extraordinarily naturally amicable, and you would be unable to discover any vapor or smoke amid the procedure. The main plausibility of smoke and exhaust rising will be if the metal contains any contaminants.

It is the reason you should check and clean your base metals completely before you begin welding. Paint, oil, oil, zinc, and lead are among numerous different components that you should look out for before welding.

We have talked about welding and TIG welding in far-reaching subtlety. We have additionally thought to be diverse kinds of welding and why TIG welding is prevalent and more valuable than numerous different types of welding. Peruse about the means you ought to pursue when you are going to TIG weld and some wellbeing tips that can be advantageous for you while welding. ensure that one can pick a TIG welder which would suit your requirements in the best way as it has a wider operating range.

The Invention of Glock Pistol

In 1982 a huge revolution occurred in the world of hand-held firearms. Seemingly from out of the blue came the much celebrated and widely acclaimed Glock 17 pistol. What is more surprising is that the inventor Gaston Glock had never previously invented a firearm of any kind. As usual, the new kid on the block was quickly rejected by skeptics and conservatives who believed that the new product would get nowhere. And they seemed to be well justified. After all, the Glock Pistol 17 was merely a plastic gun that would never compete with its famous metallic cousin! Or so it was said.

To their consternation and utter disbelief, the opposite happened. Only 10 years later, by 1992, the Glock Gun 17 pistol had already sold well over 350,000 pieces with 250,000 sold out in the United States only! The big question is what made the Glock 17 pistol so popular in so many countries within such a short time? What was the secret behind the runaway success of this version of the Johnnie-come-latie handgun? Read on to find out more.

The Fascinating History of the Glock Pistol

In 1982, an ordinary curtain rod maker in Australia started having big ideas. His name was Gaston Glock. There was a need to equip his national army with an effective model of a handgun that would stand the test of time Trouble was Glock had never developed anything resembling a gun or firearm. He was a simple rod-maker!

Yet Glock did not lose heart, quickly putting together a group of leading handgun experts carefully selected from all over the European continent. Some were professionals who served in the police and the army. A few had civilian backgrounds. All were top-notch firearm experts. In a short while, after a series of tests led by Gaston Glock himself the genius gun was developed. It became the 17th patent, hence earning the tag, the Glock 17.

As earlier stated, many gun experts initially wrote off the Glock pistol as a non-starter, a momentary cloud that would quickly pass away without a trace. After all, a better version of handguns already existed that were tried and tested for centuries. Among the kings of the handgun world was the celebrated Smith and Wesson Reasons Why Experts Doubted the Glock Pistol.

  • The inventor Gaston Glock was not a renowned gun expert. Moreover the newly invented.
  • plastic-covered gun’ was considered inferior to popular metal guns that were thought to be more effective in combat. It was jokingly referred to as a plastic gun mainly because of large amounts of plastic used to design the body.
  • Due to its dubious plastic credentials, the Gaston Glock gun’s durability was put into doubt compared to the conventional metallic weapons.
  • plastic gun, more like a toy would be unreliable and unsuitable especially when dealing with ruthless criminals.
  • There was another issue? What would happen in major airports if one carried the Glock pistol? It was thought that the new gun would circumvent efforts to detect metallic guns and encourage criminal activity.

Pundits Proved Wrong

Eventually, the experts were proved wrong as the Glock pistol sales and popularity soared worldwide. Before long, the gun was used in more than 48 countries and became popular with both the law-enforcement agencies like the police and the military and also with civilian users. What is more, records showed that the gun had become a darling of criminals!

In 1982 the Austrian police and army already used the gun to a large degree. Soon the Swedish and Norwegian forces followed suit and NATO later declared the gun as a standard classified firearm. By 1988 the US police, army, and the FBI had adopted the gun. In 2013 the British army its arsenal with the Glock 17. Popular features of the Glock 17:

  • The large amounts of plastic used made it lightweight.The large amounts of plastic used made it lightweight
  • It’s of lack of external safety gave it an advantage over many semi-automatic handguns
  • It proved to be quite durable.

Best Glock for Home Defence The Glock 17 gun became the best Glock for home defense due to the following factors, Quick aiming, With the Glock 17 one could quickly aim and be on target. The US police discovered the officers learned how to use it quickly and they became more accurate marksmen. Light trigger pull, This feature of the Glock 17 meant it was easy to use and reliable. This also makes the best Glock for home defense. Low penetration, The Glock 17 ensures you cannot easily miss target due to its low penetration feature. Easy handling, The Glock 17 is, again the best Glock for home defense. It’s easy to handle even if combat takes place in a small room. No doubt, the Glock 17 was a wonderful invention of the 21st century that revolutionized everything. Do you need a firearm for self-defense? Yes, the Glock 17 is the best Glock for home defense.

Colonel Washington’s Wakefield Ride, February, 1756


What a boost for Rhode Island tourism if we had another “Washington Slept Here” site.  Maybe we do.


     There’s no document, but there are many who believe that Colonel George Washington, with his Captains Mercer and Stewart and servants John Alton and William Bishop slept on Sugar Loaf Hill, outside Wakefield, at a hostelry later known as “Ye Olde Tavern” in 1756.  The five were headed for the Narragansett Ferries, at URI’s Bay Campus.  Editors at the University of Virginia, have long assumed the five men, headed for Boston, sailed from New London to Newport, through the infamous “Race”, and around Point Judith, challenging waters indeed..


     “Why, we wouldn’t take a horse out in your weather”, Beverly Runge politely demurred.  Horses were left with Thomas Chew, New London’s postmaster, whose letter received by Washington in Boston, the University of Virginia editors published in 1976.   I suggested, “you don’t know our waters, or the “Race” off Long Island and the perils awaiting at Point Judith”.  More likely, the five men, led by the “finest horse-man in Virginia” took fresh mounts from Chew and continued up to Westerly, up to Sugar Loaf Hill, and on to Jamestown and Newport.


     My friends in Virginia have no document, “it was simply too long ago,” Mrs. Ringe wrote.  Washing-ton’s own three-page budget proves the young Colonel grandly visited Philadelphia and New York.  In Newport, the officers were elegantly entertained by Geoffrey Malbone.  The budget records, “by Cash to Mr. Malone’s servant, to a bowel broke: eight pounds in Virginia currency”.   Fare is next recorded for progress on a “British man-of-war”.


      “Every officer on horseback, except mr. Washington, was killed or wounded”, Justice John Marshall, reports in his Life of Washington, in 1804.  This was “Braddock’s Defeat”, the July, 1755 ambush of the English troops out in Pennsylvania, at a fort later named for Lord Pitt.  The French and their Indians demolished the British force of 1,300.  “The general himself, after losing three horses, received a mortal wound, and his regulars fled in utmost terror and confusion”.  Washington buried General Braddock between the tracks of their cannon, preserving his corpse from marauders.


     In January, Washington was sent from Williamsburg to Boston to convince Governor-General Shirley that Pennsylvania must be retrieved.   Joshua Hempsted, New London’s diarist records his return on March 8, “Col. Washington in town.  He hath been to Boston to advise or be directed by the governor”.  Shirley’s letter that preceded his return to Williamsburg proves that he “directed”.  The men of Virginia, Maryland, the Carolinas and Pennsylvania armed again.  Out they went, that second summer, to find the French stronghold deserted, the French returned to Quebec.


    But what of the Wakefield stop?  A change of horses from New London may well happened on  Samuel Ward’s Westerly farm.  Ward had Narragansett Pacers: his mare, Betsy was immediately bought out of his estate in March of 1776. The horses were small, but sure, and chosen despite Washington’s size.  Ward was a Newporter, son of a Governor, who settled over “on the mainland” around 1745, having married a Block Islander with dowry-land ashore.


      Up the old Queen’s High Way the five men rode.  At last the hostelry stood out, on Sugar Loaf Hill.  The largest building for many miles, it was a central gathering place.  We might assume that settlers rallied there that night in the ample upstairs hall, to hail the hero of Pennsylvania.


     The proud old building appears as the “Willard Hazard place” up to 1910 in the South Kings-town deeds.  Thomas O’Neill Gordon. was born there, he told me, in its front room., in 1917.  His mother and her sisters maintained the place as “Ye Olde Tavern” up to its demise in 1958.  Despite State preservation recording, down it went.  The 11/25/57 document states, “Washington slept here” But, we must remember, there is no document.


     “There wasn’t a fall when we didn’t have a chimney fire in the Old Tavern,” I gathered from Leona Kelley, social worker, teacher and long-time legislator.     Mr. Gordon, in his nearby house where he lived with his eldest son, anxiously showed me a brass plaque, an eagle.   “Do you think this was on their uniforms?”  How much I wished I could assure him, but the Roman eagle was no British emblem in 1756.  Mr. Gordon died that fall of ’93.  He had been sent a letter from the Ladies of Mount Vernon Ladies’ Association, keepers of the home of Washington, thanking him for his care of the story.  It was on his couch, ready to show to all, the last time I visited him.


     Mr. Gordon described the June day the beloved old site went down.  “It was put together without a nail . . it just wouldn’t go down, it was that strong.  It was taken down, not torn”.  Its great oak timbers were taken away; some flooring was installed nearby, across from Wakefield’s Larchwood Inn.  Wooden pegs were saved, some given to Neil Mahoney, with the promise that there”would be a place for Tom” in the nursing home the Mahoneys had recently established.


     Friends with a chain-fall saw that the great granite lintel, nine feet by four and one-half, eighteen inches high, was reset in the new house built for Mr. and Mrs. Gordon, not far away.


            In 1960 a house went up on the triangular plot.  It’s still lived in by the original owner who encouraged the mounting, on her land, of a granite fence post from the tavern, also removed that hot June day to the Gordons’ new home.  Funds from the Washington Trust Company enabled the South County Tourism Council to emplace it.  Its bronze plaque saves the story.  A patriotic Wakefielder sees that its Stars and Stripes is renewed each year.


           “Will you go with me to the banks of the Monongahela, to see your youthful Washington, supporting, in the dismal hour the ill-fated Braddock; and saving by his judgment and his valor, the remains of a defeated army?”  So asked Henry Lee, memorializing his friend and cousin in his “First in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen” speech to Congress.  We celebrated here that young Colonel here, on Sugar Loaf Hill, and the scholars in Virginia, admitting no document, were pleased.


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       Compiled by Tempus Fugit as a souvenir of the “Washington Rides” originated by the South County Tourism Council and the Washington Trust, and then carried on by NewportFED in 1996, 1999 and 2002.  Was offered to South Kingstown schools but, except for a 1994 presentation at Wakefield Elementary, never adopted.